Landmark Supreme Court Cases

Monday, 13 June 2011

Landmark Supreme Court cases- There are many cases in history of Supreme Court that can be called landmarks. As such cases got a lot attention from media and people, hence they became popular. When the decision of these cases comes out, it became landmarks in the history of Supreme Court. Such a landmark supreme court case is of Ernesto Miranda, whose wrongful conviction led to the landmark case Miranda v. Arizona, in which the Court held that detained criminal. This had a significant impact on law enforcement in the United States, by making what became known as the Miranda rights part of routine police procedure to ensure that suspects were informed of their rights.

Landmark Supreme Court cases

Today is the 45th anniversary of the landmark Miranda v. Arizona decision of the Supreme Court. As the world is constantly changing, and many laws and regulations also changed with it. But to recall such prominent decisions in past, we take a look at some of the most significant rulings in Supreme Court history and the issues that continue to shape our nation today.


Miranda v. Arizona

The 1966 famous supreme court case was Miranda v. State of Arizona; Westover v. United States; Vignera v. State of New York; State of California v. Stewart.
The issue is actually Ernesto Miranda, arrested for kidnapping and sexual assault in this town, claimed that his confession was inadmissible because the police failed to inform him of his constitutional right to an attorney. The ruling Supreme Court held that is, because of certain Constitutional amendments, no confession could be accepted unless a suspect had been made aware of and waived his or her legal rights during police questioning.

Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka 

The 1954 famous case was of Oliver Brown et al. v. Board of Education of Topeka et al. A movie named |Separate But Equal" also made on this case.
The issue was that Linda Brown denied admission to her local elementary school because she was African American. This case challenged the “separate but equal” public schools doctrine. The decision came after a three-year battle and the judges voted unanimously to end legal segregation in public schools because it violated the clause of equal protection of the 14th amendment.

Marbury v. Madison 

The 1803 famous case was of William Marbury v. James Madison, Secretary of State of the United States. This was actually the supreme court's first great case.
The secretary of state at that time James Madison refused to seat four judicial appointees, even though they had been confirmed by the Senate.The lawsuit, touted as the Supreme Court's first great case, established the power of judicial review. It authorized the federal courts to review laws and invalidate those that violate the Constitution.

Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

Regents of the University of California v. Allan Bakke was a famous case of 1978.
This case involved Allan Bakke, a thirty-five-year-old white man,who was rejected twice for University of California Medical School at Davis while minority applicants were admitted with significantly lower scores than his. The school reserved sixteen places in each entering class of one hundred for "qualified" minorities, as part of the university's affirmative action program, in an effort to redress longstanding, unfair minority exclusions from the medical profession. Bakke's qualifications (college GPA and test scores) exceeded those of any of the minority students admitted in the two years Bakke's applications were rejected. Bakke contended, first in the California courts, then in the Supreme Court, that he was excluded from admission solely on the basis of race.The court decided that while race was a legitimate factor in school admissions, the use of rigid quotas was not permissible. No and yes. There was no single majority opinion. Four of the justices contended that any racial quota system supported by government violated the Civil Rights Act of 1964.So, the Court managed to minimize white opposition to the goal of equality (by finding for Bakke) while extending gains for racial minorities through affirmative action.

Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission

The latest 2010 famous case was of Citizens United, Appellant v. Federal Election Commission. The issue is that the nonprofit Citizens United sought an injunction against the Federal Election Commission to elude penalties for airing the controversial “Hillary: The Movie” before the Democratic primaries. This modern-day court case transformed the campaign finance landscape.The court resolved that the government cannot outlaw political spending by corporations in candidate elections because of this amendment, wiping out laws in 24 states that banned such spending.

Gideon v. Wainwright 

The 1963 famous court case was of Clarence E. Gideon v. Louie L. Wainwright, Corrections Director. Thea movie based on this case was "Gideon's Trumpet".
This case involved Clarence Earl Gideon, who was arrested in Panama City after stealing $5 and a few bottles of beer from a vending machine. He wasn't able to afford a lawyer and was required to go to court alone. The Supreme Court ruled that defense attorneys must be provided to criminal defendants who are charged with serious offenses and cannot afford a lawyer.
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